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Publications on thesaurus construction and use

- including some references to facet analysis, taxonomies, ontologies, topic maps and related issues

This is a list of printed and electronic publications about the principles of constructing and using information retrieval thesauri. It is not a list of existing thesauri, although some thesauri have been included when they are good examples or illustrate the results of different approaches to thesaurus construction.

At the end I have given a few references on the following:

I have not yet examined all the articles listed, so in some cases the details and abstracts quoted have come from current awareness services and other sources.


Thesaurus structure and use

About thesauri / Jessica L. Milstead. - [s.l.] : Jelem, 2000.

A brief introduction to what a thesaurus is, why an organisation may need one, and the process of thesaurus construction.

After the dot-bomb : getting Web information retrieval right this time / by Marcia J. Bates. - First Monday, volume 7, number 7, July 2002.

In the excitement of the "dot-com" rush of the 1990's, many Web sites were developed that provided information retrieval capabilities poorly or sub-optimally. Suggestions are made for improvements in the design of Web information retrieval in seven areas. Classifications, ontologies, indexing vocabularies, statistical properties of databases (including the Bradford Distribution), and staff indexing support systems are all discussed. - [Author's abstract]

Art and architecture thesaurus / Toni Petersen, Director. 2nd ed. - New York ; Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1994. - 5vols ; 28cm. - The thesaurus may be browsed online.

ASIS thesaurus of information science and librarianship / by Jessica L. Milstead. 150p. ISBN: 0-938734-80-6 Price: $35.00

Related fields such as computer science, linguistics, education, and economics are examined. The thesaurus includes over thirteen hundred preferred terms, 691 nonpreferred terms, and 37 facet indicators. Scope notes and definitions of ambiguous terms are given. Contains an alphabetical listing, a hierarchical listing, and a rotated (KWIC) listing.

Australian pictorial thesaurus (APT). - Sydney : State Library of New South Wales, 2000. - [Accessed 2000-11-04]

"The purpose of the Australian Pictorial Thesaurus is to provide Australian terms for indexing Australian pictorial collections and a controlled vocabulary for searching across image databases on the Internet. It is intended that the APT will become a national standard for describing pictorial materials. All non-abstract topic terms are arranged hierarchically within five narrower terms [categories or tables: events & activities; ideas & concepts; manufactured objects; natural objects; people; places & structures]. Terms for abstract ideas and concepts are arranged following the Dewey Classification Scheme in a separate table [not available on the Web site].

The Australian Pictorial Thesaurus was developed through a joint project sponsored by the National Library of Australia, Australian Museums Online (AMOL) and led by the Council of Australian State Libraries (CASL). CASL is the peak body representing the eight State and Territory Libraries throughout Australia. AMOL is an initiative of the Cultural Ministers Council and its Heritage Collections Council. CASL, AMOL and the National Library are now sponsoring the ongoing management and development of the APT." - [Extracted from Web pages]

Although constructed for the indexing of pictorial material, this is a well-structured general thesaurus of 15,000 terms arranged hierarchically which may be of use for any collection of objects and images. The "about APT" page gives sound and useful advice not only on the use of this thesaurus but on indexing using any thesaurus

Structured vocabularies for information retrieval — Guide
— Part 1: Definitions, symbols and abbreviations
/ British Standards Institution. - London : BSI, 2005. - 9p. ; 30cm. - (BS 8723-1:2005) - ISBN 0 580 46798 8.
— Part 2: Thesauri / British Standards Institution. - London : BSI, 2005. - 59p. ; 30cm. - (BS 8723-2:2005) - ISBN 0 580 46799 6.
— Part 3: Vocabularies other than thesauri / British Standards Institution. - London : BSI, 2007. - 44p. ; 30cm. - (BS 8723-3:2007) - ISBN 978 0 580 53862 9.
— Part 4: Interoperability between vocabularies / British Standards Institution. - London : BSI, 2007. - 55p. ; 30cm. - (BS 8723-4:2007) - ISBN 978 0 580 53863 6.
— Part 5: Exchange formats and protocols for Interoperability / British Standards Institution. - London : BSI, 2008. - 56p. ; 30cm. - (DD 8723-5:2008) - ISBN 978 0 580 53864 3.

The preceding standards supersede:

British standard guide to establishment and development of monolingual thesauri / British Standards Institution. - 1st rev. - London : BSI, 1987. - 32p ; 30cm. - (BS5723:1987) (ISO2788-1986)
and
British standard guide to establishment and development of multilingual thesauri / British Standards Institution. - London : BSI, 1985. - 63p ; 30cm. - (BS6723:1985) (ISO5964-1985)

These standards have been revised by a Working Party of the British Standards Institution - Stella Dextre Clark (Convenor), Alan Gilchrist, Ron Davies and Leonard Will. The new standard is in five parts. Part 5 deals with data models for thesaurus structures and interchange formats for thesaurus data. As some of these formats are still under discussion and development, this part of the standard has been issued as a "Draft for development", numbered DD872-5, rather than as a British Standard.
A revised international standard, ISO 25964, based on this British Standard, is in preparation and is expected to be published in late 2010 or 2011.

British standard recommendations for examining documents, determining their subjects and selecting indexing terms / British Standards Institution. - London : British Standards Institution, 1984 . - 6p. ; 30cm. - (BS 6529:1984).

BSI ROOT thesaurus. - 3rd ed. - Milton Keynes : British Standards Institution, 1988. - 2v ; 30cm. - ISBN 058016991x.

Build yourself a thesaurus : a step by step guide / Elizabeth Orna. - Norwich : Running Angel, 1983. - 32p ; 30cm.

Classification criteria for historical astronomical instrumentation / F. Bònoli, M. Calisi and P.Ranfagni. - Atti del XVI Congresso Nazionale di Storia della Fisica e dell'Astronomia, Centro Volta, Villa Olmo, Como, 24 - 25 Maggio 1996 / a cura di Pasquale Tucci

A discussion of the problems of variant names for historical astronomical instruments and a suggested outline classification by function.

Classification of a subject field / Jack Mills. - In: Proceedings of the International Study Conference on Classification for Information Retrieval, Dorking, England, 13th-17th May 1957. - London : Aslib, 1957. - p.29-42.

Clinical classification and terminology : some history and current observations / Christopher G. Chute. - Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 2000, vol.7, p.298-303. - 29 refs.

The evolution of health terminology has undergone glacial transition over time, although this pace has quickened recently. After a long history of near neglect, unimaginative structure, and factious development, health terminologies are in an era of unprecedented importance, sophistication, and collaboration. The major highlights of this history are reviewed, together with important intellectuaadvances in health terminology development. The inescapable conclusion is that we are amidst a major revolution in the role and capabilities of health terminologies, entering an age of large-scale systems for health concept representation with international implications. - [Author's abstract]

Collection thesaurus - alphabetical and hierarchical / Powerhouse Museum ; edited by Judith Coombes. - Sydney : Powerhouse Publishing, 1996. - Vol.1 62p, Vol.2 296p ; 30 cm. - ISBN 1 86317 060 X (set) 1 86317 057 X (Vol.1); 1 86317 058 8 (Vol.2) : paperback. - AU$71.50 inc GST

This thesaurus, developed by the Powerhouse Museum's Registration Department, contains over 5000 entries.

Comparative study of PC-supported thesaurus software / Claus Ritzler. - International Classification, 1990, no.3/4, p.138-147.

Study of three packages (INDEX, PROTERM and TMS) for development, construction and management of thesauri ... with special regard to hardware and software requirments, handling and user interface, and functionality and reliability. All three comply with minimum requirements, but differ in the inclusion of additional features. - Author abstract, amended.

Controlled vocabulary and the Internet / presentations from the Subject Analysis and Retrieval Working Group Conference, 29th September 1999. Contents as follows:

Criteria for the evaluation of thesaurus software / by Jochen Ganzmann. International Classification, 1990, vol.17, no.3/4, p.148-157. Copies of this paper and its checklist of criteria are on this site.

Design/selection criteria for software used to handle controlled vocabularies. - United Kingdom. Office of the e-Envoy, January 2004. - 14p.

A document prepared in the context of practical implementation of the Government Category List (GCL), but with much general guidance applicable to software for any controlled vocabulary. Available in .pdf and .doc formats.

Discovering buffalo story robes: a case for cross-domain information strategies / Lyn Elliot Sherwood. - Computers and the Humanities, 1998, vol.32, no.1, p.57-64.

Buffalo Story Robes, a small digital exhibit from Canada's Glenbow Museum, was the inspiration for this author's insights into how to realize the potential of the digital library. Sherwood, the head of the Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN) found that this exhibit on the stories of the tribes of the Canadian plains had many related resources in government repositories, archives and libraries. The exhibit represents one small example of a current challenge in the digital environment: how to enable users to find related across domains. Sherwood acknowledges that "each of these communities is bound by its own traditions and classification schema." She asserts that effective access is dependent on increased collaboration among the many disciplines, and recommends looking closely at the role of authorities, thesauri and a process for mapping taxonomies across domains. Perhaps common sense, but essential if we are ever to realize the vision of the digital library as "an organized, selected or managed body of information." - Abstract by Lisa Yesson from Current Cites Vol.9, no.10 October 1998

Essential classification / Vanda Broughton. London : Facet Publications, 2004. - xii, 324p. ISBN 1 85604 514 5.

This paperback was published in October 2004 and and represents the most recent addition to classification text books. The title may be a little misleading as the book also covers subject analysis and word based approaches such as lists of subject headings and thesauri. Thus, the book serves as a rather comprehensive introduction to the whole field of knowledge organization in libraries - with good practical overviews, summaries, exercises, a glossary, an index and a bibliography with suggestions for further reading. - [Extract from review by T. Henriksen.]

Essential thesaurus construction / Vanda Broughton. - London : Facet Publishing, 2006.- 296p. - ISBN 1 85604 565 X : £29.95.

This practical text examines the criteria relevant to the selection of a subject management system, describes the characteristics of some common types of subject tool, and takes the novice step-by-step through the process of creating a system for a specialist environment. The methodology employed is a standard technique for the building of a thesaurus that incidentally creates a compatible classification or taxonomy, both of which may be used in a variety of ways for document or information management. - [Publishers' Web site]

Exploiting LCSH, LCC, and DDC to retrieve networked resources : issues and challenges / Lois Mai Chan. - Washington, D.C. : Library of Congress, December 2000.

Explorations in automatic thesaurus discovery / Gregory Grefenstette. - Norwell, MA : Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994. - 320p. - ISBN 0 7923 9468 2. - (The Kluwer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science ; vol.278)

This text presents an automated method for creating a first-draft thesaurus from raw text. It describes natural processing steps of tokenization, surface syntactic analysis and syntactic attribute extraction. From these attributes, word and term similarity is calculated and a thesaurus is created showing important common terms and their relation to each other, common verb-noun pairings, common expressions, and word family members. The techniques are tested on 20 different corpora ranging from baseball newsgroups, assassination archives, medical X-ray reports, abstracts on AIDS, to encyclopedia articles on animals, even on the text of the book itself. The corpora range from 40,000 to 6 million characters of text, and results are presented for each in appendices. The methods described in the book have undergone extensive evaluation. Their time and space complexity are shown to be modest. The results are shown to converge to a stable state as the corpus grows. The similarities calculated are compared to those produced by psychological testing. A method of evaluation using Artificial Synonyms is tested. Gold Standards evaluation show that techniques significantly outperform non-linguistic-based techniques for the most important words in corpora. This text includes applications to the fields of information retrieval using established testbeds, existing thesaural enrichment and semantic analysis. Also included are applications showing how to create, implement, and test a first-draft thesaurus. - [Synopsis from publisher's Web site.]

Extracting value from automated classification tools : the role of manual involvement and controlled vocabularies / by Kat Hagedorn, Argus Associates. - Ann Arbor, Michigan : Argus Associates, March 2001.

Automated classification tools can't solve today's large-scale web and intranet indexing challenges alone. Neither can humans. But solutions that integrate human expertise with software products such as Interwoven's Metatagger and Autonomy's Categorizer can provide real value and savings. After a brief introduction to automated classification, this white paper discusses the benefits and limitations of manual, automated, and hybrid approaches. It explores the opportunities for leveraging controlled vocabularies and thesauri to produce more effective indexing solutions. - Author's summary

Faceted classification and logical division in information retrieval / Jack Mills. - Library Trends, vol.52, no.3, Winter 2004, p.541-570.

The main object of the paper is to demonstrate in detail the role of classification in information retrieval (IR) and the design of classificatory structures by the application of logical division to all forms of the content of records, subject and imaginative. The natural product of such division is a faceted classification. The latter is seen not as a particular kind of library classification but the only viable form enabling the locating and relating of information to be optimally predictable. A detailed exposition of the practical steps in facet analysis is given, drawing on the experience of the new Bliss Classification (BC2). The continued existence of the library as a highly organized information store is assumed. But, it is argued, it must acknowledge the relevance of the revolution in library classification that has taken place. It considers also how alphabetically arranged subject indexes may utilize controlled use of categorical (generically inclusive) and syntactic relations to produce similarly predictable locating and relating systems for IR. - Author's abstract

Factiva Synaptica® knowledge management system : resources. - Accessed 2006-06-28.

A bibliography and list of resources, covering:

Final report to the ALCTS/CCS Subject Analysis Committee / Subcommittee on Subject Relationships/Reference Structures. - Chicago, IL : American Library Association, 1997. - Includes a bibliography on subject relationships. - Accessed 2003-07-14.

Report of an investigation of: "(1) the kinds of relationships that exist between subjects, the display of which are likely to be useful to catalog users; (2) how these relationships are or could be recorded in authorities and classification formats; (3) options for how these relationships should be presented to users of online and print catalogs, indexes, lists, etc." - [extract from the report]

From data to knowledge through concept-oriented terminologies : experience with the medical entities dictionary / James J. Cimino. - Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 2000, vol.7, p.288-297 . - 29 refs.

Knowledge representation involves enumeration of conceptual symbols and arrangement of these symbols into some meaningful structure. Medical knowledge representation has traditionally focused more on the structure than the symbols. Several significant efforts are under way, at local, national, and international levels, to address the representation of the symbols though the creation of high-quality terminologies that are themselves knowledge based. This paper reviews these efforts, including the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) in use at Columbia University and the New York Presbyterian Hospital. A decade's experience with the MED is summarized to serve as a proof-of-concept that knowledge-based terminologies can support the use of coded patient data for a variety of knowledge-based activities, including the improved understanding of patient data, the access of information sources relevant to specific patient care problems, the application of expert systems directly to the care of patients, and the discovery of new medical knowledge. The terminological knowledge in the MED has also been used successfully to support clinical application development and maintenance, including that of the MED itself. On the basis of this experience, current efforts to create standard knowledge-based terminologies appear to be justified. - [Author's abstract]

GenThes : a general thesaurus browser for Web-based catalogue systems : a step towards component based catalogue systems / Ralf Nikolai, Ralf Kramer, Marc Steinhaus, Paolo Plini and Bruno Felluga.

Thesauri have been proven means to identify documents in libraries for centuries. In this paper, we show how this approach can be combined with most recent Internet technologies. The Java-based general thesaurus browser GenThes is able to handle several heterogeneous, multilingual thesauri. With the General European Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), GenThes is currently being used with several environmental catalogue systems. Feedback from users reveal that this approach greatly facilitates search and retrieval as compared to free-text only search. Performance which is crucial in Web applications as well has been improved by reducing the transfer volume of data and code. The software architecture of GenThes supports easy configuration and adaption to the individual needs of different systems that it is connected to. Ongoing work as well addresses to use GenThes as a query expansion module for multilingual search in distributed document collections. - [Authors' abstract]. - [Accessed 2001-02-11]

Guidelines for forming language equivalents: a model based on the art & architecture thesaurus / International Terminology Working Group, sponsored by The Getty Information Institute. - This publication is a product of the Getty Information Institute. After the dissolution of the Getty Information Institute in June 1999, CHIN was asked to host the publication on the CHIN Web site. - [Accessed 2001-03-05]

Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies / developed by the national Information Standards Organization : approved August 30, 1993, by the American National Standards Institute. - Bethesda, Maryland : NISO Press, 2005. - 172p. ; 28cm. - (National Information standards series, ISSN 1041-5653; ANSI/NISO Z39.19 - 2005). - ISBN: 1-880124-65-3 : $59.00. Available for free download in PDF format.

"Presents guidelines and conventions for the contents, display, construction, testing, maintenance, and management of monolingual controlled vocabularies. It focuses on controlled vocabularies that are used for the representation of content objects in knowledge organization systems including lists, synonym rings, taxonomies, and thesauri." - [NISO standards]. - Care should be taken in interpreting this standard, because it uses some concepts with a wider meaning than the conventional one (as incorporated in the British Standard BS8723, for example). Especially confusing is the use of the word "facet" in Z39.19 to refer to fields of a catalogue record (or "metadata elements") of a document rather than keeping the meaning to facets of a subject. It gets it right in the glossary. - [LDW]

Hypertext presentation of thesauri used in online searching / Richard Pollard. - Electronic Publishing, vol. 3(3), 155-172 (August 1990)

A Hypertextual interface for a searcher's thesaurus / by Eric H. Johnson and Pauline A. Cochrane, Grainger Engineering Library Information Center, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1301 West Springfield Ave., Urbana, IL 61801, USA., [1995 or 1996?]

I say what I mean, but do I mean what I say? / Paul Miller. - Ariadne, issue 23, 22nd March 2000.

In this paper, I'll take a look at some of the issues surrounding the use of controlled terminology, report on the recent MODELS 11 workshop which attempted to tackle some of them, and outline some of the recommendations for future work which arose from that workshop and a similar one held by the North American National Information Standards Organization (NISO) at the end of 1999. - [Introduction]

In the beginning was the word : making English Heritage thesauri available on-line / Daphne Charles. - Cultivate Interactive, issue 3, 29 January 2001.

New methods of generating and disseminating the National Monuments Record thesauri produced by English Heritage. By generating the thesauri as static HTML pages (capable of being viewed with most Web browsers) it has been possible to reduce the cost of publication, distribute digital copies online and offline, and meet the needs of a far wider range of users.
The thesauri constitute a popular resource for terminology control aimed at cultural heritage professionals engaged in computerisation of information on historic buildings, shipwrecks and archaeological sites. They have also proved very popular with non-specialists and the general public - [Author's abstract]

Indexing languages and thesauri : construction and maintenance / Dagobert Soergel. - Los Angeles, CA : Melville, 1974. 632p., 72 fig., ca 850 ref. - (Wiley Information Science Series)

Indexing resources on the WWW : database indexing, controlled vocabularies and thesauri / Mary Sue Stephenson. - Vancouver : University of British Columbia, School of Library, Archival and Information Studies, 2002. - [Accessed 2003-03-16]

A bibliography of Web sources arranged under the following headings: constructing and using thesauri and term lists; links to online thesauri, term lists and classification schemes; online classification schemes; database indexing guidelines and discussions; relational indexing; automatic indexing; information architecture.

Investigating automated assistance and implicit feedback for searching systems / Bernard J. Jansen, Michael D. McNeese, School of Information Sciences and Technology, The Pennsylvania State University. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, v.41, no.1, 2005, p. 280 - 286.

Information retrieval systems offering personalized automated assistance have the potential to improve the searching process. There has been much work in this area for several years on a variety of systems. However, there has been little empirical evaluation of automated assistance to determine if it is of real benefit for searchers. We report the results of empirical evaluation investigate how searchers use implicit feedback and automated assistance during the searching process. Results from the empirical evaluation indicate that searchers typically use multiple implicit feedback actions, usually bookmark - copy. The most commonly utilized automated assistance was for query refinement, notable the use of the thesaurus. We discuss the implications for Web systems and future research. - [Author's abstract]

Integrating thesaurus relationships into search and browse in an online photograph collection / Michelle Dalmau et al. - Library Hi Tech. - ISSN 0737-8831. - Vol.23 no.3, 2005; p. 425-452.

Design/methodology/approach – Surveys controlled vocabulary structures and their utility for catalogers and end-users. Reviews research literature and usability findings that informed the specifications for integration of the controlled vocabulary structure into search and browse functionality. Discusses database functions facilitating query expansion using a controlled vocabulary structure, and web application handling of user queries and results display. Concludes with a discussion of open-source alternatives and reuse of database and application components in other environments.
Findings – Affirms that structured forms of browse and search can be successfully integrated into digital collections to significantly improve the user's discovery experience. Establishes ways in which the technologies used in implementing enhanced search and browse functionality can be abstracted to work in other digital collection environments. - [Author's abstract]
The intermediate lexicon: an aid to international cooperation / V. Horsnell. - Aslib Proceedings Vol.27, Feb. 1975, p.57--66.

Internet/intranet and thesauri / Branka Kosovac. - National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, 199-?. - Viewed 14th August 2000.

This report investigates the current use of thesauri for retrieval of networked information, more specifically, for indexing and searching Internet and intranet resources. Its focus is on thesauri regulated by ANSI/NISO Z39.19-1993 [ANSI/NISO 94], i.e. structured controlled vocabularies clearly and systematically identifying the basic semantic relationships (i.e. equivalence, hierarchical, and associative) among terms in natural language that are designed for postcoordination. - [Introduction] Contains 31 references and a list of operating information retrieval systems which implement a thesaurus.

Les langages d'indexation : conception, construction et utilisation dans les systemes documentaires / G. Van Slype. - Paris : Les editions d'organisation, 1987

Lexicography without limits - A Web-based solution / Trish Yancey, Dave Clarke and Justine Carson. - Denver, Colorado : Synapse, 1999. - Paper presented to the 1999 Annual Meeting of ASIS, American Society of Information Science

Web-based technology enables virtual production environments to be created in which teams of both in-house staff and remotely-based contractors can work together on thesaurus construction and indexing projects. ... Synapse Corporation, a company specializing in providing lexicography and indexing services, has developed a software solution that enables information specialists, who may be based in different organizational entities and geographic locations, to have real-time editorial access to centralized databases. The SynapticaTM software application can be accessed from anywhere in the world using standard web browsers. Each client project is hosted at a unique, secured web site and users are granted password-protected access. - [Authors' abstract]

Metadata: cataloging by any other name; Metadata projects and standards; Sources of metadata information on the Web / by Jessica Milstead and Susan Feldman. - Online, January 1999. - [Accessed 2003-03-17]

Multilingual thesaurus construction - integrating the views of different cultures in one gateway to knowledge and concepts / by Michele Hudon. Information Services and Use (ISSN: 0167-5265), vol.17 no.2/3, 1997, p.111-123.

The development of a multilingual thesaurus is more than the "putting together" of several monolingual thesauri. The true multilingual thesaurus offers complete conceptual and terminological inventories for each one of the languages involved; most importantly, to present a fully developed thesauri structure in each language, so that a user consulting the linguistic version most appropriate for her/him gets the same amount of semantic information. General linguistic and specific semantic problems arising in multilingual thesaurus construction are relatively well defined in the various textbooks and in the guidelines covering this area. Much details are provided on the "conceptual equivalence" issues, and various ways of dealing with conceptual divergence are described. But when discussing semantic solutions, display options, management issues, or use of technology, specialists and guidelines seldom, if ever, go as far as commenting on whether or not a particular option is truly respectful of a language and its speakers.
This paper, based on the premise that in a multilingual thesaurus all languages are equal, reviews the options and solutions offered by the guidelines to the developer of specialized thesauri. It also introduces other problems of a sociocultural, and even of a truly political nature, which are a prominent feature in the daily life of the thesaurus designer but with which the theory and the guidelines do not deal very well. It focuses in turn on semantic, managerial, and technological aspects of multilingual thesaurus construction, from the perspective of giving equal treatment to all languages involved. - [Journal abstract]

Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services (NKOS). A group who are discussing the data and functional model for enabling Knowledge Organization Systems such as thesauri, classification systems, and gazetteers as distributed, interactive services on the Internet. - [Accessed 2000-12-03].
The archive of the NKOS electronic discussion list is available.

NISO Z39.19: Standard for structure and organization of information retrieval thesauri / Jessica L. Milstead. Paper presented at the Taxonomic Authority Files Workshop, Washington, DC, June 23, 1998.

Online construction of alphabetic classaurus : a vocabulary control and indexing tool / F. J. Devadason. - Information Processing and Management, vol.21, no.1, 1985, p.11-26.

Classaurus is a faceted hierarchic scheme of terms with vocabulary control features. It is a system of terms having separate hierarchic schedules of the Elementary Categories: Discipline, Entity, Property, and Action, together with their respective Species/Types, Parts and Special Modifiers. Also there are separate schedules for the Common Modifiers: Form, Time, Environment, and Place. Each of the terms in these hierarchic schedules is enriched with synonyms, quasi synonyms etc. The hierarchic schedules constituting the systematic part is supplemented by an alphabetical index of chain entries. Classaurus is used in the formulation of subject headings in general, and in particular, subject headings according to the Postulate based Permuted Subject Indexing (POPSI) language. For the construction of classaurus the POPSI language itself provides guidelines. A set of programs have been developed to construct a classaurus using as input, subject headings formulated according to POPSI language which are enriched with certain codes to denote the different Elementary Categories, their Species, Parts, Special Modifiers and other Common Modifiers of different kinds. The resulting classaurus has hierarchic schedules but terms in an array are arranged only alphabetically. The hierarchic schedules constitute the Systematic part of the classaurus. The system generates an alphabetic Index Part to the Systematic Part, in which for each term its broader terms are kept to its right hand side successively along with a code to denote the schedule to which the term belongs. To find out the position of a term in the Systematic Part, the whole entry for the term in the Alphabetic Part is taken and the sequence of the terms in it is reversed. Using the code for the schedule in the entry, the appropriate hierarchic schedule is selected. The schedule is then searched using the broader terms successively as keys until the term in question is reached, wherein all the hierarchically related terms could be found, including synonyms, quasi-synonyms etc. Both the Systematic Part and the Alphabetical Index Part are printed out for manual reference and also kept as direct access files for on-line access and on-the-spot updating and building up of the classaurus while inputting new subject headings formulated for this purpose. - [Abstract from publishers' web site; full text available for purchase online]

Ontosaurus : a tool for browsing and editing ontologies / Bill Swartout, Ramesh Patil, Kevin Knight, Tom Russ. - Marina del Rey, Calif. : University of Southern California. Information Sciences Institute, [1998?].

An illustrated description of Ontosaurus, a web-based tool for browsing and editing ontologies and knowledge bases. See also the Ontosaurus home page - [Accessed 2001-06-24]

The order of things : how everything in the world is organized into hierarchies, structures & pecking orders / by Barbara Ann Kipfer. - 1st rev. paperback ed. - New York : Random House, c1998. - xxv, 389 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. - ISBN: 0375701648.

Included here as general interest and light relief rather than as a serious collection of taxonomies for information retrieval use. See the listing on the Amazon site for reviews.

Organizing information: metadata and controlled vocabularies / Ray R. Larson. - Berkeley, CA : University of California, Berkeley. School of Information Management and Systems [SIMS], 1998. - PowerPoint presentation of 57 slides given to SIMS Affiliates Meeting, December 1998. - [Accessed 2000-12-02]

An overview of the field, including definitions; origins and uses of controlled vocabularies for information retrieval; metadata; types of indexing languages, thesauri and classification systems; process of design and development of thesauri. - [From introductory slide]

Powering search : the role of thesauri in new information environments / by Ali Shiri. – Medford, NJ : Information Today, 2012. - 336p. – ISBN 978-1-57387-454-0. – (ASIST monograph series).

Practical taxonomies : hard-won wisdom for creating a workable knowledge classification system / by Sarah L. Roberts-Witt.

Discussion of the importance of controlled vocabularies and classification systems in a business information environment, and some pointers to work on developing these.

Relational data structures for implementing thesauri / Randy Ballew, Thomas Duncan, Mike Blasingame. - University of California, Berkeley. Museum Informatics Project. Information Systems and Technology, 1999. - ii,23p.

Implementation of Z39-19 compliant thesauri in SQL database. Use of visitation sequence model to simplify SQL queries and displays. Includes enitity-relational model for a thesaurus structure.

The rise of ontologies or the reinvention of classification / by Dagobert Soergel. - Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 1999. vol.50, no.12, p. 1119-1120.

Classifications/ontologies, thesauri, and dictionaries serve many functions, which are summarized in this note. As a result of this multiplicity of functions, classifications - often called ontologies - are developed in many communities of research and practice. Unfortunately, there is little communication and mutual learning; thus, efforts are fragmented, resulting in considerable reinvention and less than optimal products. - [Author's abstract]

SIS - TMS: a thesaurus management system for distributed digital collections / Martin Doerr & Irini Fundulaki. - In: Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries : Second European Conference, ECDL'98, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, September 21-23, 1998, Proceedings. / C. Nikolaou & C. Stephanidis. eds. - 911 p. - Heidelberg : Springer, 1998. - (Lecture Notes on Computer Science ; 1513). - ISBN 3-540-65101-2. - pp. 215-234. Paper available as a compressed PostScript file (259 KB)

The availability of central reference information as thesauri is critical for correct intellectual access to distributed databases, in particular to digital collections in international networks. There is a continuous raise in interest in thesauri, and several thesaurus management systems have appeared on the market. The issue, how to integrate effectively such central resources into a multitude of client systems and to maintain the consistency of reference in an information network has not yet been satisfactorily solved. We present here a method and an actual thesaurus management system, which is specifically designed for this use, and implements the necessary data structures and management functions. The system handles multiple multilingual thesauri and can be adapted to all semantic thesaurus structures currently in use. Consistency­critical information is kept as history of changes in the form of backward differences. The system has been installed at several sites in Europe. - Authors' abstract

Software support for thesaurus construction and display / Dagobert Soergel. - In: Proceedings of the 5th ASIS SIG/CR Classification Research Workshop. Held at the 57th ASIS Annual Meeting, Oct. 16-20, 1994, Alexandria, VA. - Silver Spring, MD : American Society for Information Science, Special Interest Group / Classification Research, 1994. 10; 5: 157-184. (Advances in Classification Research ; v. 5)

Dr Soergel has written many other papers on thesauri and related topics. A list of these is given in his CV.

Specifications for thesaurus software / by Jessica L. Milstead. Information Processing and Management, 1991, vol. 27, no.2/3, p.165-175.

Systems of knowledge organization for digital libraries : beyond traditional authority files / by Gail Hodge. - Washington, DC. : Council on Library and Information Resources, 2000. - 43p. - (CLIR publication : pub91). -ISBN 1-887334-76-9 : $15. - Full text available in html or pdf formats.

This report examines the use of knowledge organization systems - schemes for organizing information and facilitating knowledge management - in a digital environment.
Knowledge organization systems serve as bridges between a user's information needs and the material in a collection. Examples of such systems include term lists, such as dictionaries; classification schemes, such as ... [the Dewey Decimal Classification]; and relationship lists, such as thesauri. These and other types of knowledge organization systems, which vary in complexity, structure, and function, can improve the organization of digital libraries and facilitate access to their content. -[Publisher's abstract, amended.]
The useful Taxonomy of knowledge organization sources/systems from this report has been separately adopted as a draft

Taking control of web content: our Taxonomy Manager makes web content easier to find. - [Redmond, WA] : Microsoft, December 2001.

Describes how Microsoft have decided that relying on free text searching of their Web sites is not sufficient and how they have developed thesaurus software to improve matters. The software referred to, Taxonomy Manager, appears to be an internal Microsoft system and not a marketed product. There are, incidentally, various other products called "Taxonomy Manager" to be found on Google, for example.

Taxonomy consultants : what they do, where to find them / Jean Graef. - Montague Institute Review, June 2001.

This article is based on interviews with Society members and the consultants they have known. It describes what taxonomy consultants do, what their deliverables look like, how to match their skills with your requirements, and where to find them. - [Introduction. Abstract only : full article is restricted to subscribing members.]

A taxonomy primer / Amy J. Warner. - Ann Arbor, Michigan : Lexonomy, 2002.

Despite its title, this is a brief introduction to the principles of constructing thesauri and other forms of controlled vocabulary.

Thesauri and controlled vocabularies / National Library of Canada. - 2001.

Includes a section on terminology used in the federal government of Canada as well as links to thesauri, classification schemes, controlled vocabularies, geographic names, subject clusters and taxonomies. There are also to compendia compiled by experts in the field, construction and management tools, related research and projects, as well as standards. - [Message from Fay Hjartarson to DIGLIB: Digital Libraries Research mailing list, 2001-10-12]

Thesauri for museum documentation : the proceedings of a Workshop held at the Science Museum, London, 24 February 1992 / The Museum Documentation Association, Terminology Working Group. - Cambridge : MDA, 1992. - 106p ; 30cm. - ISBN 0-905963-84-9. - (MDA occasional paper ; 18). - ISSN 0140 7198

The thesaurus : review, renaissance, and revision / Sandra K. Roe and Alan R. Thomas, editors. - New York ; London : Haworth, 2004. - 209p., 21cm. - ISBN 0 7890 1978 7 (hardback); ISBN 0 7890 1979 5 (paperback). - Co-published simultaneously as Cataloging and Classification Quarterly, vol.37, nos.3/4, 2004.

A collection of twelve papers by thesaurus specialists, with many references and an overall index, as follows:

Controlled vocabulaties : recommended reading. - [Ottawa] : Library and Archives Canada, 2006- . - Accessed 2008-11-24.

Part of a group of pages on the Government of Canada core subject thesaurus which also includes the thesaurus itself and introductory material on thesaurus principles and use.

Thesaurus construction : [an introductory tutorial]. The purpose of this module is to teach you the basics of constructing an information retrieval thesaurus. / by Tim Craven. - London, Ontario : University of Western Ontario, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, last updated July 3, 1998.- Several linked internet documents (HTML), starting with:<http://instruct.uwo.ca/gplis/677/thesaur/main00.htm>. - Accessed 2000-08-29.

Step by step guidance on constructing a thesaurus, including collecting terms, deciding on the forms of terms, and choosing the appropriate relationships with which to link terms. Contains a glossary and quizzes, but the quizzes require JavaScript for Netscape Navigator 3.0; they do not work with Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.02.
Thesaurus construction: problems and their roots / by Uri Miller. Information Processing & Management (ISSN: 0306-4573), vol. 33 no. 4, July 1997, p. 481-493.
Some general problems of thesaurus construction theory and practice are analyzed and discussed. The analysis is based on research and experience already accumulated in librarianship and information science as well as some other sciences and general scientific methods (linguistics, systems analysis, etc). Some methodological and methodical ways of solving problems existing in thesaurus construction are recommended. - [Journal abstract]

Thesaurus construction and maintenance guidelines / RBMS Bibliographic Standards Committee. - Chicago : American Library Association, Association of College and Research Libraries, Rare Books and Manuscripts Section, 1998 - (RBMS manual ; 13). - Accessed 2004-02-14.

Guidance on the choice of options and local decisions in applying NISO Z39.19 [erroneously referred to as Z39.13] to the development of existing thesauri and the construction of additional controlled vocabularies for rare books and manuscripts.

Thesaurus construction and use: a practical manual / Jean Aitchison, Alan Gilchrist, David Bawden. - 4th ed. - London : Aslib, 2000. - 240p ; 30cm. - ISBN 0-85142-446-5 : £42.50 (£34 for Aslib Corporate members)

Comment on 3rd ed:The latest edition of the standard handbook for anyone setting out to construct a thesaurus. Based on the British, ISO and ANSI standards, it also includes an introduction to the principles of faceted classification which is helpful when constructing a thesaurus linked to such a scheme. Contains a full and up-to-date list of references, though references to Internet resources are few.

Thesaurus construction and maintenance: a survival kit / D. Batty. - Database, 1989, vol.12, no.1, p.13-20.

Thesaurus construction software. Parts 1 and 2 / by Glenda Browne. - Online Currents, Vol 19, Issues 3-4, Apr-May 2004.

A review of Term Tree, MultiTes and WebChoir (TCS-8) in the versions available in February 2004).

Thesaurus consultancy / Leonard Will - Cataloging and Classification Quarterly. vol. 37, issues 3/4, 2004, p.75-85.

The role and functions of a consultant in thesaurus development are reviewed, with guidance given on when and how a consultant can be selected. The need for a contract is discussed, and the steps of a thesaurus project are outlined. The cost of thesaurus development is seen to be subject to many variables which makes it difficult to estimate accurately, but some guidelines are given. Testing and feedback are important, and the use of a thesaurus requires an ongoing commitment from the client organisation to maintain and develop it to keep pace with change. Ways in which thesaurus development software can be used are discussed, and attention is drawn to the need for interaction between thesaurus developers and user interface designers to allow the benefits of a thesaurus-based information retrieval system to be fully realised.

A thesaurus data model for an intelligent retrieval system / by Susan Jones. Journal of information science, 1993, vol.19, p.167-178.

Presents an entity-relationship data model for a thesaurus structure.

Thesaurus developer comments on megaterms / J. L. Milstead. Database : the magazine of database reference and review, 1990, vol.13, no.4, p.5.

Supports the idea that systems should support generic searching, and that "upward posting" is therefore undesirable.

Thesaurus-enhanced search interfaces / Ali Asghar Shiri, Crawford Revie and Gobinda Chowdhury. Journal of Information Science, 28 (2) 2002, p.111-122.

User interfaces to information retrieval systems play a major role in assisting users to search, browse and retrieve information relevant to their needs. This paper provides a review of a category of information retrieval interfaces that are enhanced by incorporating standard thesauri as part of their searching and browsing facilities. A brief account of the rationale behind the integration of thesauri as search aids in such interfaces is provided, based on research literature related to information searching behaviour, information retrieval interface evaluation, search term selection and query expansion. Two categories of search interfaces enhanced with thesauri are examined: those associated with research-based programmes and commercial web-based interfaces to bibliographic databases. Six commercial web-based databases are compared in terms of their thesaurus interface features. It is concluded that, although the number of thesaurus-enhanced interfaces is growing, few studies have focused on user interaction with these interfaces or fully explored the ways in which they can assist users in the search process. - [Authors' abstract.]

Thesaurus federations: loosely integrated thesauri for document retrieval in networks based on Internet technologies / by Ralf Kramer, Ralf Nikolai, Corinna Habeck. International Journal on Digital Libraries (ISSN: 1432-5012), vol.1 no.2, September 1997, p.122-131

As a result of the distribution of interrelated information over several different information systems, the interconnection of information systems has increased in recent years. However, a purely technical interconnection is insufficient for users who need to find their way to information they are looking for. Thesauri are a proven means to identify documents, e.g., books of interest in a library. For different domains, different thesauri are available, which can be used in information systems as well, e.g., for the indexing and retrieval of data objects. Thus, interconnection of information systems raises the need to integrate related thesauri. Furthermore, recent advances in open operability technologies (World Wide Web, CORBA, and Java) offer the potential for completely new technical solutions for employing thesauri.
This paper presents an approach for integrating multiple thesauri databases. It concentrates on the integration of distributed and heterogeneous thesaurus databases and the integration of multilingual and monolingual thesauri. The software architecture takes advantage of the most advanced Internet and CORBA technology currently available in public domain and in commercial implementations. - [Journal abstract]

Thesaurus for graphic materials. TGM I: Subject Terms. TGM II: Genre and Physical Characteristic Terms. / Compiled and edited by Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. - Washington, D.C. : Library of Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service, 1995. - 556p. (Section I is 472 pages, II is rest of book, with 600 authorized terms and 448 cross references). - ISBN 0-8444-0889-1.

This is the revised edition of two works: LC thesaurus for graphic materials / compiled by Elisabeth Betz Parker. LC, 1987. Descriptive terms for graphic materials / compiled and edited by Helena Zinkham and Elisabeth Betz Parker. LC, 1986.

Thesaurus guide: analytical directory of selected vocabularies for information retrieval, 1992. -- 2nd ed. / prepared by EUROBrokerS for the Commission of the European Communities. -- Luxembourg : European Communities, 1993. -- III, 1033p. -- ISBN 9282649563. -- (EUR/92/14006) ; (Rapports EUR 14006).

Describes over 600 structured vocabularies which have appeared in at least one of the official languages of the European Communities, including those published in the USA and Canada. This publication was accessible as a database on the European Union's ECHO service but it was withdrawn in early 1998 because it had not been updated for some years.

Thesaurus iconographique : système descriptif des représentations / François Garnier. - Paris : Léopard d'or, c1984. - 239 p. : ill. ; 30 cm.

A thesaurus interchange format in RDF / B.M.Matthews, K. Miller, M.D.Wilson - Accessed 2003-01-18

If the semantic web using RDF is going to be adopted and assimilated a clear migration path from present technologies to new ones is required. Thesauri are used throughout the information retrieval world as a method of providing controlled vocabularies for indexing and querying. The semantic relations in thesauri are defined in ISO standards. The ISO standards are currently undergoing revision, including the probable introduction of a thesaurus interchange format (TIF). A TIF is proposed represented in RDF which captures the current semantic relations, and which can be used as a step towards the application of more semantically discriminating ontologies. - [Authors' abstract]

Thesaurus-Leitfaden : eine Einführung in das Thesaurus-Prinzip in Theorie und Praxis / Gernot Wersig und Petra Schuck-Wersig. - 2nd revised ed. - München, New York, London, Paris : Saur, 1985. - 394p. - (DGD-Schriftenreihe, Bd. 8). - ISBN 3 598 21252 6.

Thesaurus guide : an introduction to thesaurus principles in theory and practice. A classic german-language text.

Thesaurus management software In: Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, vol.51, supp.14, p.389-407.

Thesaurus management software / Australian Society of Indexers. - [Accessed 2000-10-14]

Thesaurus modules in text management software / by Jennifer Rowley. In: Text retrieval : information first. Proceedings of the Institute of Information Scientists 1990 Text Retrieval Conference, London, 1990 / edited by Peter Gillman. - London : Taylor Graham, 1991. - ISBN 0-947568-47-6. - p.16-33.

Thesaurus software / Jean Graef. - Montague Institute Review, October 2001.

In this article we discuss software for creating and maintaining a thesaurus. The material comes from our own experience, email responses to the Member Q&A, and comments from participants in our seminars and roundtables. For members new to the topic, we begin with an introduction to thesauri in a corporate information management system. - [Introduction] [Abstract only - full text is restricted to members of the Montague Institute.]

Thesaurus software and keyword constellation construction / Jan C. Wright A to Z: The Newsletter of STC's [Society for Technical Communication's] Indexing SIG [Special Interest Group], January 2002, vol.5, no.1, p.3-5

A user's experience of MultiTes and Term Tree software. Available for downloading by SIG members only.

Thesaurus software packages / Jessica Milstead. In: ASIS '90: proceedings of the 53rd ASIS annual meeting, Nov 4-8, 1990.

Thesaurus software packages for personal computers / Jessica Milstead. Database, Dec 1990, vol.13, no.6, p.61-65.

TML: a thesaural markup language / Maria Lee, Stewart Baillie, Jon Dell'Oro. - In: Proceedings of the 4th Australasian Document Computing Symposium, Coffs Harbour, Australia, December 3, 1999. - [Australia] : CSIRO, [1999]. - ISBN 1 86384 461 9.

Thesauri are used to provide controlled vocabularies for resource classification. Their use can greatly assist document discovery because thesauri man date a consistent shared terminology for describing documents. A particular thesaurus classifies documents according to an information community's needs. As a result, there are many different thesaural schemas. This has led to a proliferation of schema-specific thesaural systems. In our research, we exploit schematic regularities to design a generic thesaural ontology and specify it as a markup language. The language provides a common representational framework in which to encode the idiosyncrasies of specific thesauri. This approach has several advantages: it offers consistent syntax and semantics in which to express thesauri; it allows general purpose thesaural applications to leverage many thesauri; and it supports a single thesaural user interface by which information communities can consistently organise, store and retrieve electronic documents. - Authors' abstract

Toward human-computer information retrieval / Gary Marchionini. - Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. - ISSN 0095-4403. - v.32, no.5, 2006, p. 20-22.

Encourages the development of systems that interact more with users, giving users control and assistance in search formuation and refinement and helping them to make full use of system capabilities.

Toward terminology services : experiences with a pilot Web service thesaurus browser / Douglas Tudhope, Ceri Binding. - Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. - ISSN 0095-4403. - v.32 no.5, 2006, p.6-9.

As initial exploration of programmatic access to KOS with the SKOS API, we developed a pilot PC-based (.NET) Web service client demonstrator application. This was tested on a remote server, which used a different technology platform. Supported by concept caching, it generally achieved a fast enough response for reasonable interaction and suggests that the SKOS API can support client applications of this type. However further refinement of the API is required.
Given foreseeable bandwidth limitations, KOS-specific protocols continue to be needed for efficient services. Future API designs should support the further integration of KOS into rich but responsive mapping and query terminology services. - Authors' conclusions

True and tested products : thesauri on the Web / M. Hudon (Ecole de Bibliotheconomie et des Sciences de l'Information, Montreal University, Quebec, Canada). - Indexer, vol.23, no.3, April 2003, p.115-119.

Hundreds of thesauri are now available on the Web in either static or dynamic HTML formats, most as standalone products. Even though they have moved into a different environment, their nature and structure, and even their main functions, have remained the some. The article discusses the issue of whether the thesaurus can play a significant role in Web-based information retrieval without evolving into a more flexible tool. - Authors' abstract

Understanding metadata. - Bethesda, MD : NISO, 2004. - 20p. - ISBN  1 880124 62 9. - [Accessed 2004-12-28]

Understanding metadata is a revision and expansion of Metadata made aimpler: a guide for libraries published by NISO Press in 2001.

Use of the CAIRS' thesaurus facility at the Council of Mortgage Lenders / Alison Scammell. Managing Information, 1994, vol.1, no.2, p.35-37.

Use of thesauri in the full-text environment / Jessica L. Milstead. - Indian Head, MD : The Jelem Company, 1998. - Accessed 2000-08-29. - Based on a paper presented at the 34th Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing

Utilizing faceted structures for information systems design / Uta Priss, Elin Jacob. - Proceedings of the 62st Annual Meeting of ASIS, 1999, p. 203-212.

A brief investigation of the structure of the websites of three schools of library and information science by seeing how easy it is to find answers to five typical questions. This is followed by a discussion of the advantages of a faceted thesaurus structure, from a mathematical point of view. Unfortunately the terminology used differs from that used in the library and information science community, so that though the ideas presented are valid there may be some confusion in interpreting them and relating them to discussions elsewhere. Other publications by Dr Uta Priss are listed on her Web site. - [LDW]

VHG [virtual hyper glossary] / VHGTM [Peter Murray-Rust and Lesley West], 2000-05-14. The original site at <http://www.vhg.org.uk/> appears to be inaccessible, but a summary of the project is available on the Coverpages site. - Accessed 2004-02-14.

The VHGTM is a novel, simple approach to increasing knowledge creation and retrieval on the Web. We believe that terminology (dictionaries, glossaries, etc.) is a key tool in capturing knowledge and the VHGTM makes this as simple as possible. Our organisation offers Web-oriented terminological services to groups such as learned societies or companies creating their intranets. Because the VHG uses XML as its basis, it is simple and universally applicable. A collaborative, Web-oriented approach to build a worldwide network of terminology to suport the semantic Web. - [Overview page]
This site uses an almost illegible combination of blue type on a red background, but it may be read by using the accessibility options of a browser to disable colours specified in Web pages. - LDW

Visualizing subject access for 21st century information resources : the 34th Annual Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing / sponsored by the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology in March 1997 ; edited by Pauline Atherton Cochrane and Eric H. Johnson. - Champaign, IL : GSLIS Publications Office, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. - 176p. - ISBN 0-87845-103-X: US$30.

Drawn from various communities of research and development in the U.S. and Europe, the speakers provided viewpoints as digital library developers, interface and visualization experts, bibliographic system vendors, cognitive researchers, librarians, and information service providers. Included among the topics at the 1997 clinic: Papers include World Wide Web URLs that offer further insight into presentations. - [Extract from publisher's notes]

Vocabulary as a central concept in library and information science / Michael Buckland. - Preprint of paper published in: Digital libraries: interdisciplinary concepts, challenges, and cpportunities. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science (CoLIS3, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 23-26 May 1999 / edited by T. Arpanac et al. - Zagreb : Lokve, 1999[?]. - ISBN 953-6003-37-6. - pp 3-12.

The nature and role of vocabulary in information systems is examined. "Vocabulary" commonly refers to the stylized adaptation of natural language to form indexes and thesauri. Much of bibliographic access, filtering, and information retrieval can be viewed as matching or translating across vocabularies. Multiple vocabularies are simultaneously present. A simple query in an online catalog normally involves at least five distinct vocabularies: those of the authors; the cataloger; the syndetic structure; the searcher; and the formulated query.

Vocabulary can be defined as the range (or repertoire) of values in any field of bibliographic description and, in a more extended sense, the range of types in a set at any level (word, field, collection, and library). Digital libraries can be represented by a simple recursive model composed of sets ("collections") and two kinds of operation on the sets.

Vocabulary problems are central to the economics of digital libraries because unfamiliar vocabulary reduces search effectiveness. Issues of identity are central to Library and Information Science because of the indexical role of vocabulary. Vocabulary is a central component in digital libraries. Problems inherent in vocabulary help explain the nature and history of conceptions of Library and Information Science. - [Author's abstract]

Vocabulary control for information retrieval / F. W. Lancaster. - 2nd ed. - Arlington, Va. : Information Resources Press, 1986

Vocabulary links : thesaurus design for information systems / seminar by Dr. Bella Hass Weinberg ; synthesis by Fred Brown. - KeyWords / American Society of Indexers, November/December 1998.

A seminar presented on April 3, 1998, at the Association of the Bar of the City of New York.

Vocabulary management tools and the Internet. - Denver, Colorado : Synaptica, 2001. - Preview of paper to be presented to the 2001 Annual Meeting of ASIS, American Society of Information Science and Technology.

What are going to be the new vocabulary management and indexing needs of the twenty first century? Synapse Corporation is attempting to identify these needs through discussions with companies and organizations worldwide. Some topics of current interest include: (i) drill-down taxonomies specifically geared to producers of web-based directories - classification structures that combine top-down hierarchical pathways and multifaceted classification principles; (ii) interfaces with automated or computer-assisted indexing systems. ... While much research on natural language processing (NLP), automatic indexing and classification, etc., continues, to date nothing has been developed that can effectively manage and make accessible web information. As more data is continually added to the web universe, and as attempts to integrate intranet data with web information to create a single reference source on a specific desktop, it appears that NLP alone is not the solution. However, a synthesis of NLP and modified thesaurus and classification methodologies seems to hold great promise for effective web searching and navigation in the near future. - [From authors' abstract and summary.]

Web services for controlled vocabularies / Diane Vizine-Goetz, Andrew Houghton, Eric Childress. - Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. - ISSN 0095-4403. - v.32 no.5, 2006, p. 9-12.

"... we present an approach for using Web services to interact with controlled vocabularies. Services are implemented within a service-oriented architecture (SOA) framework. SOA is an approach to distributed computing where services are loosely coupled and discoverable on the network. A set of experimental services for controlled vocabularies is provided through the Microsoft Office (MS) Research task pane (a small window or sidebar that opens up next to Internet Explorer (IE) and other Microsoft Office applications). The research task pane is a built-in feature of IE when MS Office 2003 is loaded. The research pane enables a user to take advantage of a number of research and reference services accessible over the Internet. Web browsers, such as Mozilla Firefox and Opera, also provide sidebars which could be used to deliver similar, loosely-coupled Web services." - [From authors' introduction]

Workshop on electronic thesauri : planning for a standard : report / by Jessica Milstead. - Bethesda, MD : National Information Standards Organization, 1999. - Accessed 2000-08-07.

NISO (The National Information Standards Organization), APA (The American Psychological Association); ASI (The American Society of Indexers); and ALCTS (Association for Library Collections and Technical Services) sponsored an invitational workshop on November 4-5, 1999 in Washington, DC to investigate the desirability and feasibility of developing a standard for electronic thesauri. The review of ANSI/NISO Z39.19-1993(R1998) standard (Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Thesauri) recommended such an investigation. - [first paragraph of report]

A workshop on the compilation, maintenance, and dissemination of taxonomic authority files (TAF) June 22 - 23, 1998; Washington, DC / Sponsored by: The National Science Foundation; The American Libraries Association, Association for Library Collections and Technical Services,Cataloging and Classification Section, Task Force on a Forum for Natural History Cataloging Issues; The United States Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division. - San Francisco : Californian Academy of Sciences, last edited 2001.

The compilation, maintenance, and dissemination of taxonomic authority files has much in common with authority control as conceived and practiced in the library cataloging and information retrieval communities. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a forum in which members of the systematics and library communities can describe their respective domains, and identify the concepts, practices, and technologies that could be shared to promote consistency in the cataloging, indexing, and retrieval of biological information. The two-day workshop consisted of 18 presentations by invited speakers, questions and comments for speakers, and discussion at the end of each session. - Index page
Sessions
I. Examples of taxonomic authority compilation projects
II. A framework for authority control: from shared vocabularies to the cooperative cataloging of common data objects
III. Authorities, gazetteers, and thesauri
IV. Data structures for taxonomic names and classifications
V. Technologies for accessing and replicating authorities

WWW -- wealth, weariness or waste: controlled vocabulary and thesauri in support of online information access / David Batty. - D-Lib Magazine (ISSN 1082-9873), November 1998.

This article offers some thoughts on the problems of access to information in a machine-sensible environment, and the potential of modern library techniques to help in solving them. It explains how authors and publishers can make information more accessible by providing indexing information that uses controlled vocabulary, terms from a thesaurus, or other linguistic assistance to searchers and readers. - [Author's abstract.]

Zthes: a Z39.50 profile for thesaurus navigation / Mike Taylor. - Version 0.3b. - Washington, DC : Library of Congress. Z39.50 International Standard Maintenance Agency, 26th July 1999. - [Accessed 2000-09-23]

This document describes an abstract model for representing and searching thesauri - semantic hierarchies of terms as described in ISO 2788 - and specifies how this model may be implemented using the Z39.50 protocol. It also suggests how the model may be implemented using other protocols and formats. ... As an example, an appendix defines an XML DTD for thesaurus terms based on the model, and includes an example XML document using that DTD.
This profile does not mandate any relationship between a thesaurus and a database. The model is that terms from any thesaurus database may be used to search any other database (called a target database). - [Introduction]

Facet analysis

All about facets and controlled vocabularies / by Karl Fast, Fred Leise and Mike Steckel. - Boxes and arrows, 9th December 2002.

This is the first in a series of articles . . . We intend to explain both facets and the more general concept of controlled vocabularies. We want to make the subject accessible to those who don't have advanced degrees in library and information science. Furthermore, we want to show how these concepts can be applied to solve information architecture problems for the Web and other digital information environments.
The concept of faceted classification is decades old, and controlled vocabularies go back even further. Consequently a great deal has already been written about the subject. But these writings are not always helpful to the practicing Information Architect. Some are too simple, others too academic. Most are hard to find, and many were written decades before this Web thing happened. - [Introduction]

The Essential elements of faceted thesauri / by Louise Spiteri. - Cataloging & Classification Quarterly vol.28, no.4, 1999, p.31-52

The goal of this study is to evaluate, compare, and contrast how facet analysis is used to construct the systematic or faceted displays of a selection of information retrieval thesauri. More specifically, the study seeks to examine which principles of facet analysis are used in the thesauri, and the extent to which different thesauri apply these principles in the same way.
A measuring instrument was designed for the purpose of evaluating the structure of faceted thesauri. This instrument was applied to fourteen faceted information retrieval thesauri. The study reveals that the thesauri do not share a common definition of what constitutes a facet. In some cases, the thesauri apply both enumerative-style classification and facet analysis to arrange their indexing terms. A number of the facets used in the thesauri are not homogeneous or mutually exclusive. The principle of synthesis is used in only 50% of the thesauri, and no one citation order is used consistently by the thesauri. - Author's abstract

Facet analysis : using faceted classification techniques to organize site content and structure / Louise Grunenberg. - In: ASIS&T 2002 Information Architecture Summit, Baltimore, MD., March 15-17, 2002.. - PowerPoint presentation : 32 slides. - 6 refs.

An introduction to the principles of faceted classification and the construction of faceted schemes.

Facet definition : a case study / Elaine Svenonius. - International Classification, vol.5, no.3, 1978, p.135-141.

Points to the lack of concern among indexing and classification theorists about precise facet definition.

Faceted access: a review of the literature / by Amanda Maple. - Middleton, WI : Music Libraries Association. Bibliographic Control Committee, 1995. - (BCC95/WG FAM/2)

A paper presented during the Music Library Association Annual Meeting, 10 February 1995, at the open meeting sponsored by the Working Group on Faceted Access to Music.

Faceted classification: a guide to construction and use of special schemes / prepared by B. C. Vickery for the Classification Research Group. [1st ed.] reprinted with additional material. - London, Aslib, 1968. - 70p. 22cm.

Faceted classification schemes / B. C. Vickery. - New Brunswick, NJ : Graduate School of Library Science, Rutgers, the State University, 1966. - 108p. 22cm.

Faucet facets : a few best practices for designing multifaceted navigation systems / by Jeff Veen. - San Francisco : Adaptive Path, 2002.

"So often we assume that Web sites should be hierarchically organized. We talk about a "home page" that offers "top-level navigation" so that users can "drill down" to the content. It's as if we're programmed to think top down. But what about information that isn't as easily structured this way? Sometimes, content has many attributes that have different importance to different users. A hierarchy assumes everyone approaches these attributes the same way, but that's often not the case." - Introduction.

How to make a faceted classification and put it on the Web / William Denton. - University of Toronto : November 2003.

"I have given a seven- step model for the creation of a faceted classification, and five questions to ask and four principles to follow when building a facet-based web interface. Faceted systems are very powerful, and their increasing popularity on the web is no surprise. They will only become more common, so it is important to design and deploy them well. All the benefits of a faceted classification can be fully realized on the web, giving users power that they have not had with simpler web-based systems or with faceted systems on paper." - Author's conclusion.

Putting facets on the web: an annotated bibliography / William Denton. - University of Toronto : October 2003.

Includes items categorised as "recommended", "background", "not relevant", "example Web sites" and "mailing lists".

Ranganathan and the Net: using facet analysis to search and organise the World Wide Web / David Ellis and Ana Vasconcelos. - Aslib Proceedings vol.51, no.1, January 1999 p.3-10.

A Simplified model for facet analysis: Ranganathan 101 / Louise Spiteri. Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science 23 (April-July 1998): p.1-30.

The Use of facet analysis in information retrieval thesauri: an examination of selected guidelines for thesaurus construction / by Louise F Spiteri. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly (ISSN: 0163-9374), Vol. 25 No. 1, 1997, p. 21-37.

Facet analysis has been used in the construction of faceted thesauri since the publication of the Information Retrieval Thesaurus of Education Terms in 1968. In spite of the growth of the number of faceted thesauri since then, there appears to be little consensus among thesaurus designers regarding how the principles of facet analysis are to be used in thesauri. An examination of various national and international guidelines for thesaurus construction reveals that they emphasize primarily the construction of alphabetical thesauri, but provide little guidance in the use of facet analysis in thesauri. - [Journal abstract]

Search interfaces that allow for combining terms from multiple facets of a thesaurus or different characteristics of division

There is an important distinction, not always recognised, between the following two approaches. The second of these is better called searching by parameters or characteristics rather than by facets.

  1. Combining multiple facets of a compound subject, such as people, organizations, abstract concepts, places, objects, materials and so on.
  2. Combining multiple characteristics of division of concepts within a single facet, e.g. within a materials facet there may be a concept of wines, subdivided into several arrays, not mutually exclusive, each headed by a node label such as <wines by colour>, <wines by sweetness>, <wines by origin>, <wines by price> and so on.

Aduna : guided exploration Amersfoort, The Netherlands / Aidministrator Nederland B.V.

Enterprise Search is available now as an Aduna turn-key solution. You can download it for free, install and start using it right now. Based on the idea of Guided Exploration, Aduna Enterprise Search offers users in your organisation guidance in the form of contextual hints for further exploration and user-friendly visualization to keep overview. - Aduna website, accessed 2008-04-02.
A slide presentation of the Aduna AutoFocus "open source facet-driven enterprise search solution" is available at http://www.iskouk.org/presentations/aduna.pdf

BAILANDO projects : FLAMENCO. - Berkeley : University of California, [2002].

"The Flamenco project investigates how to effectively incorporate large category hierarchies into information access user interfaces. We are addressing the following research questions: A series of designs will be prototyped and evaluated, starting with text-based displays and progressing to sophisticated visualizations." - Introduction.
Includes a live interactive demonstration version of the image search interface and references to several articles and talks describing the project.

Endeca ProFind. - Cambridge, Mass. : Endeca Technologies Inc., 2004.

A commercial product embodying faceted search techniques. A "Flash" demonstration illustrates the way it works.

Epicurious : the world's greatest recipe collection - New York : CondéNet, 2002

A commercial site which provides access to a large collection of recipes by (1) a browse interface that allows successive refinement by selecting terms from each of six facets or (2) a search interface that allows a term to be selected from one or more facets at the initial search stage. There is only one level of terms in each facet, however, so it is not possible to refine a search by moving down a hierarchy. See also Seamark.

FACET project : thesaurus based access to multimedia collections - faceted retrieval tools / School of Computing, University of Glamorgan. - Accessed 2003-11-22.

This project investigates the ways in which access to a thesaurus can be used by searchers to formulate searches of an indexed collection, and ways in which search terms can be expanded automatically to include additional terms more or less closely linked to the initial term by relationships in the thesaurus structure. A Web-based demonstration of the query expansion system is available.

Faceted metadata search and browse / Search Tools Consulting, 2003. - (Searchtools.com: background topics)

Examples and discussion of faceted search interfaces

FacetMap / Travis Wilson. - Austin, TX : Travis Wilson, [200?]. - Accessed 2002-06-12.

A simple on-line demonstration of how three facets from a thesaurus can be combined by a searcher to successively refine an enquiry.

HITITE : illustrated thesaurus / developed by English Heritage in partnership with Adlib Information Systems Ltd. within the framework of the European Commission's IST Programme. Prototype version, 2002. - Accessed 2002-12-21.

This provides a way of finding thesaurus terms for monuments by specifying a combination of characteristics. "HITITE is an on-line thesaurus of monument terms illustrated with images from the National Monuments Record's archive, and augmented with additional indexed information. If you know what it looks like but you don't know what it is, HITITE can help you to find what you are looking for. It is a new and innovative product which has brought together specialists from different areas of expertise (thesaurus creation, web design, image management and database design). Employing tools and techniques compatible with the relevant professional and technical standards to produce a methodology which can be more generally applied both within and beyond the heritage sector. In addition, HITITE will have been tested through user evaluation by a group of professional and public users." - [HITITE Web site]

IAwiki: FacetedBrowsing. - Part of IAwiki, a collaborative knowledge base for the topic of InformationArchitecture.

Gives lists of several systems that use faceted browsing interfaces, and states that the key elements of a FacetedBrowsing system are that:

International children's digital library / a joint project of The University of Maryland and The Internet Archive

The International Children's Digital Library (ICDL) is a 5-year research project to develop innovative software and a collection of books that specifically address the needs of children as readers. The search interface allows selection from 13 facets, alone or in combination, with multiple selections from the same facet when required. Needs Java, a broadband connection and a reasonably fast machine with at least 256k memory.

MuseumFinland -- Finnish Museums on the Semantic Web - Helsinki : University of Helsinki. Department of Computer Science. - Accessed 2004-09-15.

Describes work of the Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo), with a list of publications in English. The main result is a faceted search interface to museum collections similar to the Flameco project described above.The portal is in Finnish but there is an English online tutorial explaning some major features of the system.

Seamark : the enterprise navigator for digital information and components / Siderean Software, Inc. [2005?].

An example of a search interface for food recipes that combines terms from six possible facets: course, season, main ingredients, cooking method, cuisine and source. Only a single short list of terms is given under each of these, however, and there are no lower hierarchical levels. This appears to be an alternative interface to the Epicurious database referred to above.

Semantic Web environmental directory (SWED) / SWAD Europe, 2004.

A demonstration project of a directory using RDF (resource description framework). Each organisation maintains a web page holding their own data, and these are brought together in this common interface. It is a good example, showing how concepts may be selected from several facets, allowing browsing down to narrower terms within each facet and allowing multiple terms to be chosen from the same facet (overcoming a limitation of the FLAMENCO project listed above). As it is an experimental project, it is not being maintained "on a day to day basis".

Social care online London : Social Care Institute for Excellence (SCIE), Accessed 2006-03-24

An interesting example of a site that displays thesaurus hierarchies and allows multiple selections. A few aspects could be improved, for example: (1) the numbers of postings are not updated dynamically as terms are selected; (2) terms can be pasted into a search box (limited to AND operators) only from the "simple search" interface and not the "advanced search"; (3) related term (RT) links are shown even when there are no related terms to display; (4) it is not possible to display two separate hierarchies simultaneously (though the help file indicates that it is). The site shows good possibilities, though, and if improvements such as those noted above could be implemented it would be one of the best.

View-Based Systems. - Huddersfield : View-Based Systems, [200?]. - Accessed 2002-04-08.

This company's site lists many papers on the development of systems for the refinement of queries through interaction with faceted displays of thesauri. There are no live demonstrations, but walkthroughs of two systems are available, entitled An experimental OPAC interface using View-Based searching and A demonstration of an early version of workforce profiling

Waypointtm / Adiuri Systems

This is the commercial product arising from the No Zero Match (NZM) project developed at the University of Bristol. The user interface includes a tree structure against which documents, files or database records can be associated. By allowing these documents to be associated with any number of nodes in the tree, the system provides a means of browsing a faceted classification. An application of the system can be seen at Arkive and a paper describing the system is: 'No Zero Match' browsing of hierarchically categorised information entities / C. A. McMahon and others. - Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, vol.16, 2002, p.243-256.

Lists of thesauri

Networked Knowledge Organization Systems (NKOS) have drafted a registry of attributes that may be used when describing thesauri, classifications and other types of knowledge organisation system. A general registry built on these guidelines has not yet been created, but in the meantime the following lists can be used to find many general and specialist thesauri.

The University of Toronto Library maintains a Subject Analysis Systems (SAS) Collection which is the North American Clearinghouse for classification schemes, subject heading lists, and thesauri, and the major world collection in the English language, including multilingual thesauri containing English language sections. These are included in the library catalogue, and records may be retrieved by doing a subject search for "subject headings". Searching for "classification" also retrieves many relevant items.

A-Z of thesauri / Glasgow: University of Strathclyde. HILT project. - Accessed 2000-11-19.

Classification schemes and thesauri on-line / Anne Betz. - Accessed 2000-11-19.

Annotated lists of thesauri (by subject and language), classification schemes and thesaurus management software. "The thesaurus collection is based on the results of the interdisciplinary seminar 'Terminology documentation and multilingual thesauri' held in summer 1998 and in which participated students from both the Department of LIS and the Department of Languages" of the Fachhochschule Köln. - Last update: 11/12/98.

Controlled vocabularies / Michael Middleton. - Accessed 2000-11-19.

A list including bibliography, classification schemes, database of thesauri, thesaurus building & use, thesaurus sites and thesaurus software.

Controlled vocabularies, thesauri and classification systems available in the WWW / Traugott Koch. - Accessed 2000-11-19.

A list of sources of terms for expressing the subjects of documents, compiled for use in the subject fields of Dublin Core metadata. Last update: 2007-10-15

Controlling your language : links to metadata vocabularies / TASI (Technical Advisory Service for Images), Last updated: 03 February 2009. - Accessed 2000-11-19.

Introduction to the concepts of thesauri, subject headings, word lists, classifications and name authority lists, and links to more than 60 vocabulary sources.

RBMS thesauri for use in rare book and special collections cataloging / RBMS Bibliographic Standards Committee. - Chicago : American Library Association, Association of College and Research Libraries, Rare Books and Manuscripts Section. - Accessed 2000-11-19.

Thesauri titles are: Binding terms; Printing & publishing evidence; Genre terms; Provenance evidence; Paper terms; Type evidence

MARC code list: PART IV: Term, name, title sources / Library of Congress. - Accessed 2000-11-19.

Subject/index sources contains a list of works which are sources of subject headings or index terms, along with the code assigned to each source work. The purpose of this list is to allow the source of the heading or term in a field of a MARC record to be designated by a code in that field.

Taxonomy warehouse / Synapse, the Knowledge Link Corporation. - Franktown, CO : Synapse, 2003. - Accessed 2000-11-19.

This free service aims to provide a comprehensive directory of taxonomies, thesauri, classification schemes and other authority files from around the world, plus information about taxonomy references, resources and events. The Release 1.0 site, launched in April 2003, is considered a "Beta" version. It has approximately two hundred vocabularies, but our researchers are busy identifying and listing other vocabularies and hundreds more will be added to the service over the next few months. - [suppliers' Web page]

Thesaurus links / A. J. Miles. - [Last updated 2003] - Accessed 2000-11-19.

As well as lists of thesauri that can be accessed on, or downloaded from, the Web, this page includes a comprehensive list of computer encoding formats for thesauri and other concept schemes, plus references to publications, papers and other material.

Web thesaurus compendium lists several thesauri and classification schemes and has some other references to thesaurus-related literature. - Accessed 2000-11-19.

Terminology bank is a series of WWW pages prepared by the Museum Documentation giving information about thesauri and controlled vocabularies, including bibliographies and lists of sources. - Accessed 2000-11-19.

Taxonomies

The Accidental taxonomist> / by Heather Hedden. – Medford, NJ : Information Today, 2010. – 472 p., softbound. – ISBN 978-1-57387-397-0 : $39.50

The Accidental Taxonomist is the most comprehensive guide available to the art and science of building information taxonomies. Heather Hedden – one of today’s leading writers, instructors, and consultants on indexing and taxonomy topics – walks readers through the process, displaying her trademark ability to present highly technical information in straightforward, comprehensible English. Drawing on numerous real-world examples, Hedden explains how to create terms and relationships, select taxonomy management software, design taxonomies for human versus automated indexing, manage enterprise taxonomy projects, and adapt taxonomies to various user interfaces. The result is a practical and essential guide for information professionals who need to effectively create or manage taxonomies, controlled vocabularies, and thesauri. - [Publisher's information]

Where's my stuff? : Taxonomy and lexicon as keys to access / Mary Chitty. - Newton Upper Falls MA : Cambridge Healthcare Institute, 2002.

Outline of a talk given to the [USA] Special Libraries Association, 10th June 2002. Includes links to a bibliography on taxonomies and related topics.

Taxonomy software to the rescue / Paola Maio. - Online Journalism Review, 2001-10-12

Brief review of automatic classification / categorisation software, with links to the Web sites of the following suppliers: Autonomy, EoExchange, Inxight, Mohomine, Quiver, Semio, Verity.

Value of organised knowledge / by Jack Bryar. - CMS Watch, 2002-01-21.

General information about taxonomies as used in buiness applications, with reference to the use of XML tags.

Ontologies

Ontology building : a survey of editing tools / by Michael Denny. - XML.com, 2002-11-06.

A textual summary of what ontology editing tools are, with a tabular summary of the main features of 52 different tools.

A survey on ontology tools. - Amsterdam : OntoWeb Consortium, 2002-05-31.(Ontology-based information exchange for knowledge management and electronic commerce : IST-project 2000-29243 ; Deliverable 1.3).

This deliverable presents a survey of the most relevant ontology tools and semantic web technology available in our community. This survey is divided into several sections, which group different kinds of ontology tools, namely: ontology development, ontology merge, ontology evaluation, ontology-based annotation and ontology storage and querying. - [Executive summary].

Topic maps

Metadata? Thesauri? Taxonomies? Topic Maps! : making sense of it all / by Lars Marius Garshol - Oslo : Ontopio, [accessed 2004-03-27]

To be faced with a document collection and not to be able to find the information you know exists somewhere within it is a problem as old as the existence of document collections. Information Architecture is the discipline dealing with the modern version of this problem: how to organize web sites so that users actually can find what they are looking for.
Information architects have so far applied known and well-tried tools from library science to solve this problem, and now topic maps are sailing up as another potential tool for information architects. This raises the question of how topic maps compare with the traditional solutions, and that is the question this paper attempts to address.
The paper argues that topic maps go beyond the traditional solutions in the sense that it provides a framework within which they can be represented as they are, but also extended in ways which significantly improve information retrieval. - [Author's abstract].

The TAO of topic maps : finding the way in the age of infoglut / Steve Pepper. - Oslo : Ontopio, [accessed 2003-01-30]

Topic maps are a new ISO standard for describing knowledge structures and associating them with information resources. As such they constitute an enabling technology for knowledge management. Dubbed "the GPS of the information universe", topic maps are also destined to provide powerful new ways of navigating large and interconnected corpora.
While it is possible to represent immensely complex structures using topic maps, the basic concepts of the model - Topics, Associations, and Occurrences (TAO) - are easily grasped. This paper provides a non-technical introduction to these and other concepts (the IFS and BUTS of topic maps), relating them to things that are familiar to all of us from the realms of publishing and information management, and attempting to convey some idea of the uses to which topic maps will be put in the future. - [Author's abstract].

Topic maps - a standard for information organisation / [Kal Ahmed] - Oxford : Techquila. [accessed 2004-03-27].

Several papers on this site include A practical introduction to topic maps and Topic map patterns for information architecture. The second of these discusses how a variety of standard information structures from the domain of information science can be represented in topic maps. Also includes a description of PSI (Published Subject Identifier) sets for thesauri, site maps and faceted classification schemes.
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